About the Journal :
SnO2 thin films doped with various manganese concentrations were prepared on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. The decomposition procedure of com- pounds produced by alcoholysis reactions of tin and manganese chlorides was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of Mn doping on structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall effect measurement, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis, UV–Vis spectrophotometry, and photo- luminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results of the X-ray diffraction show that the samples are crystalline with a tetragonal rutile structure and the grain size decreases with increasing the doping concentration. The SEM and AFM images demonstrate that the surface morphology of the films was affected from the manganese incorporation. The Sn1 −x Mnx O2 thin films exhibited electrically p-type behavior in doping level above x = 0.035 and electrical resistive increases with increase in Mn doping. The optical transmission spectra show a shift in the position of absorption edge towards higher wavelength (lower energy). The optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) and the film thickness were determined by spectral transmittance and using a numerical approximation method. The oscillator and dispersion energies were calculated using the Wemple–DiDomenico dispersion model. The estimated optical band gap is found to decrease with higher manganese doping. The roomtemperature PL measurements illustrate the decrease in intensity of the emission lines when content of Mn is increased in Mn-doped SnO2 thin films.